This bibliography came from ideas presented in three settings in the
past twelve years.
In 1990, a series of letters and discussions took place, led by
Karla Henderson, regarding the creation of a book about "Invisible
Pioneers in Recreation and Leisure," looking at the "contributions of
women to the provision and promotion of leisure services in a number of
related areas." Those related areas included the early playground and
recreation movement, the national park movement, therapeutic
recreation, camping, outdoor education, youth agencies, military
recreation, employee services, the conservation movement, physical
recreation, etc. While that idea gained support from several potential
authors, it was felt that "an edited book might not be appropriate
until more knowledge existed in our literature."
In 1993, at a retreat to discuss issues about women and leisure,
there was considerable support for both the "need to get more
humanities into our research" and a conference "that would be a place
for presenting working papers."
In 1995, at the International Congress on Women and Leisure held at
the University of Georgia, a workshop was held to discuss the state of
research and writing about the "Women - The Invisible Pioneers in
Recreation and Leisure." The purpose of the workshop was to help
establish an understanding of the state of our knowledge of these
pioneers as well as to discuss possible future directions for research
in this area. As part of the workshop a preliminary bibliography of the
known research to date was prepared and distributed to those
participating in this workshop. That edition of the bibliography was
prepared with the input of many contributors including several
subscribers to the WLeis-L, WISHPERD, LeisureNet, SPRENet, CALS,
SportHist and SportSoc electronic mail groups. After the workshop, the
bibliography was revised and enlarged through the contributions of the
Over the summer and fall of 1995, copies of most of the documents
noted in the bibliography were acquired through the services of Acadia
University's Library, the Inter Library Loan unit and the Recreation
Resource Centre of Nova Scotia. Bibliographies such as this one are
continually growing. One of the benefits of using the World Wide Web to
distribute the bibliography is that it can be periodically updated.
Thus, the bibliography will grow as new items or amended ones can be
brought to my attention. This version of the bibliography was completed
on June 13, 2002.
This bibliography focuses on the contribution of women to the promotion
and provision of leisure services. Decisions were made along the way to
limit the bibliography to women in leisure services. While the term was
very loosely defined, the bibliography did not focus on sport, physical
education or health. Each of these latter areas is important in its own
right and has its own champions. The purpose of this
bibliography is to focus the spotlight on the women pioneers in leisure
Several students have worked on this project. Jodi Nicholson and Tonya
Beveridge worked on this project after they finished their Bachelor of
Recreation Management degrees at Acadia University. Ginger Derochie, a
graduate student in Recreation Management worked on updating the 1997
version of the bibliography. Nathan Allen improved the appearance and
usefulness of the bibliography on the web as part of his summer work
with the Acadia Institute for Teaching and Technology.
Acadia University library staff, most recently Tanja Harrison, have
helped with database searches.
Funding has been provided for this project through the Acadia
University SSHRC Grants. Both SSHRC Small University Grants and
Institutional Grants have supported the student research assistants and
purchased various versions of the EndNote bibliographic database
I must accept responsibility for any errors or omissions in this
bibliography - if you find any please email me at email@example.com
I noted earlier that the definition of leisure services was a rather
loose one. This looseness enabled me to incorporate references about
women whose contributions to leisure services may be outside the
important, but often noted, role as social reformers or settlement
house workers or playground leaders. One such example was provided by
Elery Hamilton-Smith when he brought to my attention that "women were
of immense importance in tourism because of their role as guest house
proprietors and hoteliers" (email, 9 April 1995). According to his
research, while the histories of tourist resorts often describe the
role that men played in shaping the industry, the accommodation
directories for the areas all name women as the proprietors of the
guest houses and hotels. Elery passed along the references for the
article by Jones (1994) who investigated Guesthouses of the
Gippsland Lakes in Australia, and for the book by Walton about The
Blackpool Landlady. The work of landladies is also explored by
Davidoff (1979) as she investigated Landladies and Lodgers in
Nineteenth- and Twentieth-Century England, mentioning Blackpool as
the location of various seaside resort boarding houses (p. 81).
Another lead from Elery Hamilton-Smith included the references to the
work of Edith Onians "who was the executive director of what became
known as the Melbourne Newsboys Society. This was an organization
devoted to the wellbeing of what we would call `street kids' or
`homeless youth'. Its name came from the extent to which many of such
`kids' became newspaper sellers. The society set a pattern for youth
work, including the leisure services component. Onians was a full-time
volunteer from 1897 until her death in 1955"(email, 9 April 1995).
Onians' work is described both in her 1914 book The Men of Tomorrow
and by Maunders (1984) in his History of Voluntary Youth
Organizations in Australia.
One of the unstated objectives when the work on this bibliography began
was to include material about women pioneers from outside North
America. The use of the electronic mail groups certainly aided in that
task. Thus, in addition to the references from Australia and England
noted above, there are two from New Zealand: Coney's 1986 work about
the YWCA in Auckland, and Lynch's 1987 investigation of
Victorian women mountaineers as they engaged in Scaling the Heights.
A treasure in the bibliography is the detailed study by Audrey
Wakefield about the ten women who were The Female Founders of the
Playground Association of America that Joanne Allen brought to my
attention. This masterís thesis study was done at SUNY Cortland and
photos of the women hang in the offices there.
One of the limitations of this bibliography is that it is restricted to
printed material - articles, theses, dissertations, etc. Several of the
respondents noted that there is a need to interview some of the
twentieth century pioneers who are at various stages of their careers
in order to collect their stories. I would encourage each of you who
use this bibliography to interview such women and record their stories
for future researchers.
- Bedini, Leandra. "The `Play Ladies' - the First Therapeutic
Recreation Specialists." Journal of Physical
Education, Recreation and Dance 66, no. 8 (1995): 32-35.
- Bella, Leslie. "Women and Leisure: Beyond Androcentrism." In Mapping
the Past, Charting the Future,
Edgar L. Jackson and Thomas L. Burton, 151-179. State College, PA:
- Bialeschki, M. Deborah. "Mary Schaffer Warren: A Seeker of
Untrodden Paths." In Sixth Canadian
Congress on Leisure Research, ed. Bryan J.A. Smale, 300-303.
University of Waterloo: Ontario
Council on Leisure, 1990.
- ________. "The Feminist Movement and Women's Participation in
Physical Recreation." Journal of
Physical Education, Recreation and Dance 61, no. 1 (1990): 44-47.
- ________. "We Said, "Why Not?" - a Historical Perspective on
Women's Outdoor Pursuits." Journal of
Physical Education, recreation and Dance 63, no. 2 (1992): 52-55.
- ________. "Book Review National Parks and the Woman's Voice
by P.W. Kaufman." Journal of
Leisure Research 29, no. 3 (1997): 358-362.
- Bialeschki, M. Deborah, and Karla A. Henderson. "The Feminization
of the Leisure Services Profession:
Possible Explainations and Implications." In NRPA Leisure Research
Symposium, 1-8. San
Antonio, Texas, 1989.
- Butler, G. Pioneers in Public Recreation. Minneapolis,
MN: Burgess Publishing, 1965.
- Coney, Sandra. Every Girl. A Social History of Women and the
Ywca in Auckland 1885-1985.
Auckland: YWCA, 1986.
- Cranz, Galen. "Women in Urban Parks." Signs - Journal of
Women in Culture and Society 5, no. 3
Supplement (1980): S79-S95.
- Cranz, Galen. "Women and Urban Parks: Their Roles as Users and
Suppliers of Park Services." In
for Women, ed. Suzanne Keller, 151-171. Lexington, Mass.: D.C.
Heath Co., 1981.
- Cross, Gary. A Social History of Leisure since 1600.
State College, PA: Venture Publishing, Inc., 1990.
- Davidoff, Leonore. "The Separation of Home and Work? Landladies
and Lodgers in Nineteenth- and
Twentieth-Century England." In Fit Work for Women, ed. Sandra
Burman, 64-97. New York: St.
Martin's Press, 1979.
- Davidson, Penny, and Rosemary Black. Women in National Parks:
An Interpretation of Women's
Experiences in Field Positions in Australian Natural Resource Managment
Charles Sturt University, Johnstone Centre of Parks, Recreation and
- Dickason, Jerry G. "The Origin of the Playground: The Role of the
Boston Women's Clubs, 1885-1890."
Sciences 6, no. 1 (1983): 83-98.
- Dixon, Ann. Silent Partners: Wives of National Park Wardens
(Their Lives and History). Pincher
Creek, AB: Dixon and Dixon Publishers, 1985.
- Duncan, Mary. "Back to Our Radical Roots." In Recreation and
Leisure, ed. T.L. Goodale and P.A.
Witt, 287-295. State College: Venture Publishing, 1980.
- Dunn, Diana R. "Women in Recreation." Parks and Recreation
12, no. 7 (1977): 24-30.
- Frost, Joe L., and Sue C. Wortham. "The Evolution of American
Playgrounds." Young Children 43, no. 5
- Gittell, Marilyn, and Teresa Shtob. "Changing Women's Roles in
Political Volunteerism and Reform of the
City." Signs - Journal of Women in Culture and Society 5, no.
3 Supplement (1980): S67-S78.
- Griffiths, N.E.S. The Splendid Vision: Centennial History of
the National Council of Women of
Canada: 1893-1993. Ottawa: Carleton University Press, 1993.
- Harshaw, Josephine Perfect. When Women Work Together: A
History of the Young Women's Christian
Association in Canada. Toronto: YWCA, 1966.
- Henderson, Karla A. "Jane Addams: Leisure Services Pioneer." Journal
of Physical Education,
Recreation and Dance 53, no. 2 (1982): 42-45.
- ________. "Breaking with Tradition - Women & Outdoor
Pursuits." Journal of Physical Education,
Recreation and Dance 63, no. 2 (1992): 49-51.
- ________. "Invisible Pioneers? The Impact of Women on the
Recreation Movement." Leisure Sciences
14 (1992): 139-153.
- ________. "A Feminist Analysis of Selected Professional
Recreation Literature About Girls/Women from
1907-1990." Journal of Leisure Research 25, no. 2 (1993):
- ________. "Inclusive Physical Activity Programming for Girls and
Women." Parks and Recreation 30, no.
- Henderson, Karla A., and Katherine R. Allen. "The Ethic of Care:
Leisure Possibilities and Constraints for
Women." In Sixth Canadian Congress on Leisure Research, 1-10.
Waterloo, Ontario, 1990.
- Henderson, Karla A., and M. Deborah Bialescheki. "The
Feminization of the Leisure Services Profession:
Possible Explanations and Implications." Journal of Recreation and
Park Administration 8
- Henderson, Karla A., M. Deborah Bialescheki, M. Susan Shaw, and
Valerie J. Freysinger. "The Ideal
Woman: A Historical Perspective on Women's Leisure." In A Leisure
of One's Own, 19-43. State
College, PA: Venture Publishing, Inc., 1989.
- Henderson, Karla A., M. Deborah Bialeschki, Susan M. Shaw, and
Valeria J. Freysinger. "Many Voices:
Historical Perspectives on Women's Leisure." In Both Gains and
Gaps: Feminist Perspectives
Women's Leisure, 27-70. State College, PA: Venture Publishing,
- Henderson, K.A., C. Sylvester, and L. Caldwell. "An Analysis of
Selected Professional Recreation
Literature About Girls and Women from 1906-1990." In NRPA Leisure
- Horna, Jarmila. The Study of Leisure. Don Mills, Ontario:
Oxford University Press, 1994.
- Ibrahim, Hilmi. Pioneers in Leisure and Recreation.
Reston, VA: American Alliance for Health, Physical
Education, Recreation, and Dance, 1989.
- ________. "Martin Neumeyer (1892-1978) and Esther Neumeyer
(1893-1975)." In Pioneers in Leisure
Recreation, ed. Hilmi Ibrahim. Reston: A.A.H.P.E.R.D., 1989.
- Jones, Rebecca. "An Ideal Holiday Experience: Guesthouses of the
Gippsland Lakes." Gippsland
Heritage Journal 17 (1994): 25-30.
- Kaufman, Polly. "Early Women Claim Parklands for Adventure and
Aspiration." Courier 31, no. 10
- Kaufman, Polly Welts. National Parks and the Woman's Voice: A
History. Albuquerque: University of
Mexico Press, 1996.
- ________. "Excerpt from 'Women in Uniformed Field Positions'." Women
in Natural Resources 17, no. 3
- Keyes, M.E. "History of the Women's Athletics Committee of the
Canadian Association for Health,
Physical Education and Recreation, 1940-1973." Ph.D., Ohio State
- Kimsey, Ada R. "The Women Who Do Things." Parks and Recreation
1 (1966): 836-838, 876-877.
- Knapp, Richard F., and Charles E. Hartsoe. Play for America:
The National Recreation Association
1906-1965. Arlington, Virginia: National Recreation and Park
- LaBastille, Anne. Women and Wilderness. San Francisco:
Sierra Club Books, 1980.
- Lamkin, Nina B. "Recreation Life for the Girls." The
Playground 19, no. 8 (1925): 442-445.
- Locke, Margaret Chase. "Biographical Study of Agnes Rebecca
Wayman: Her Life and Contributions to
Field of Health, Physical Education and Recreation." University of
- Lynch, Pip. "Scaling the Heights: They Called It 'an Easy Day for
a Lady.'" New Zealand Women's
Studies Journal 3, no. 1 (1987): 59-73.
- Markham, Susan E. "The Development of Parks and Playgrounds in
Selected Canadian Prairie Cities:
1880-1930." Ph.D. Thesis, The University of Alberta, 1988.
- ________. "The Impact of Prairie and Maritime Reformers and
Boosters on the Development of Parks and
Playgrounds, 1880 to 1930." Loisir et Societe/Society and Leisure
14, no. 1 (1991): 219-233.
- ________. "Advocates for National Recreation Services in the
1930's: Well-Being? Work? War?" In
to Active Living: Proceedings of the 10th Commonwealth and
Congress, ed. Frederick I. Bell and Geraldine H. Van Gyn, 87-92.
Victoria, BC: University of
- ________. "The Canadian National Parks Association: Grass Roots
Advocates for National Change." In
to Active Living: 10th Commonwealth and International Scientific
- Markham, Susan E. "Leisure and the National Council of Women of
Canada." In International
Conference on Women and Leisure. Athens, Georgia, 1995.
- ________. "Women - the Invisible Pioneers in Recreation and
Leisure: Research Bibliograpy." In
International Conference on Women and Leisure. Atens, GA, 1995.
- ________. "Early Efforts to Professionalize Leisure Services in
Canada." In Eighth Canadian Congress
Leisure Research, ed. Don Dawson, 181-185. Ottawa, On: University
of Ottawa, 1996.
- ________. "Mabel Phoebe Peters." In Dictionary of Canadian
Biography, ed. Ramsay Cook, 14, 836-
Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1998.
- ________. "Celebrating Women in the Parks: From Goddesses to
Ministers of the Crown." In
Celebrating the Parks: Proceedings of the First Australian Symposium on
Parks History, ed.
Elory Hamilton-Smith, 5-20. Melbourne, Australia: Rethink Consulting,
- Maunders, David. Keeping Them Off the Streets: A History of
Voluntary Youth Organizations in
Australia 1850-1980. Melbourne: Phillip Institute of Technology,
- McBride, Paul W. "Jane Addams 1860-1935." In Pioneers in
Leisure and Recreation, ed. Hilmi Ibrahim,
53-63. Reston: A.A.H.P.E.R.D., 1989.
- McFarland, Elsie M. The Development of Public Recreation in
Canada: Canadian Parks/Recreation
- ________. "Recreation Pioneers Honoured at Conference." Recreation
Canada 28, no. 5 (1970): 5.
- Oliva, Linda. "Boston Sand Garden Kicks Off the Playground
Movement." Parks and Recreation 20, no.
- Onians, Edith. Men of Tomorrow. Melbourne: Thomas
- Parratt, Catriona. "Making Leisure Work: Women's Rational
Recreation in Late Victorian and Edwardian
England." Journal of Sport History 26, no. 3 (1999): 471-487.
- Robertson, Brenda J. A Bibliography of Materials Related to
Leisure by Female Authors Which
Include Philosophical Perspectives. University of Oregon, 1991.
- Rooke, Patricia T., and Rodolph L. Schnell. "No Bleeding Heart:
Charlotte Whitton - a Feminist on the
- Simpson, Clare. Women and Recreation in Aotearoa/New Zealand:
An Annotated Bibliography.
Canterbury: Lincoln University, 1991, Occasional paper no. 2.
- ________. "An Annotated Bibliography of New Zealand Recreation
Research on Women." New Zealand
Journal of Health, Physical Education and Recreation 25, no. 4
- Smith, Cyndi. Off the Beaten Track: Women Adventurers and
Mountaineers in Western Canada.
Jasper, Alberta: Coyote Books, 1989.
- Squire, Shelagh. "In the Steps of 'Genteel Ladies': Women
Tourists in the Canadian Rockies, 1885-1939."
Canadian Geographer 39, no. 1 (1995): 2-15.
- Storman, Wayne F. "The Ideology of the American Urban Parks and
Recreation Movement: Past and
Future." Leisure Sciences 13, no. 2 (1991): 137-151.
- Strong-Boag, Veronica. "Roots of Modern Canadian Feminism, the
National Council of Women, 1893
-1929." Canada - An Historical Magazine 3, no. 2 (1975): 22-33.
- Strong-Boag, Veronica Jane. The Parliament of Women of Canada
1893-1929. Vol. 18 National
Museum of Man Mercury Series. Ottawa: National Museums of Canada, 1976.
- Summers, Anne. "A Home from Home - Women's Philanthropic Work in
the Nineteenth Century." In Fit
for Women, ed. Sandra Burman, 33-63. New York: St. Martin's Press,
- Theobald, William F. "Discrimination in Public Recreation:
Attitudes toward and Participation of Females."
Sciences 1, no. 3 (1978): 231-240.
- Wakefield, D. Audrey. "The Female Founders of the Playground
Association of America." Masters Thesis,
State University of New York - Cortland, 1989.
- Walton, John K. The Blackpool Landlady: A Social History.
Manchester: Manchester University Press,
- Walton, Yvette. "The Life and Professional Contributions of Ethel
Mary Cartwright (1880-1955)."
University of Western Ontario, 1976.
- Wolfe, Jeanne M., and Grace Strachan. "Practical Idealism: Women
in Urban Reform, Julia Drummond
the Montreal Parks and Playground Association." In Life Spaces:
Employment, ed. Caroline Andrew and Beth Moore. Vancouver:
University of British Columbia